AUTHORITY is defined as the formal or legal right to make and enforce laws or policies which the citizens comply or obey.

(i) TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY: This is found in simple traditional societies, where the chief or council of elders exercise authority based on customs and traditions of the people.

(ii) CHARISMATIC AUTHORITY: This is an authority derived from the belief in the exceptional ability of a leader which inspires allegiance among the followers.

(iii) LEGAL AUTHORITY: This is derived from the constitution of a modern democratic state, exercised through the three organs of government.

(iv) DELEGATED AUTHORITY: This authority is mostly given to someone to exercise functions and responsibility on specific areas.

(v) TECHNICAL AUTHORITY: It is based on the level of expertise the individual has acquired on the job. This kind of authority has to be respected, recognised and accepted in that particular area concerned.


Political socialization is defined as the process of acquiring political beliefs, values, attitude as well as citizenship training that shapes a citizens political behaviour.

[Pick Any Five]
(i) Family unit: Family unit means a group of individuals residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Transmission of knowledge about politics ,authority and allocation of values probably starts at home. The childs knowledge and experience of political activities start at family unit

(ii) The peer group: Peer group is a group of people who share certain social characteristics, such as age, class, occupation, or education, and interact on a level of equality. Peer groups are known for their influential nature as they are able to shape the decisions of other group members. The group one moves with helps to dictate or at least influence ones political emotion.

(iii) Institution of learning: Educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. Schools,colleges and other educational institutions provide avenue for political talks, debates and discussion which are basic socialising mechanism

(iv) Political party: Political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a specific countrys elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals. They educate their members and other people through their manifesto ,campaign, rallies etc thereby stimulating peoples political awareness.

(v) Pressure group: A pressure group is an organization that seeks to influence elected officials to take action or make a change on a specific issue. Pressure groups equally educate their members and even the public through conferences ,seminars etc especially ,in the areas of political and civic rights

(vi) The mass media: Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media transmit information electronically via media such as films, radio, recorded music, or television. Radio, TV ,newspapers etc disseminate a lot of political news and also analyse political issues thereby socializing listeners, readers and viewers politically.


(i) The head of state/president: The head of state sometimes called the president, is also the commander in chief of the Nigerian Armed forces. He presided over the meetings of the Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC), the council of state and the council of ministers.

(ii) The Armed forces ruling council (AFRC): This body is the highest legislative body of the military government in Nigeria. It comprises of the Head of state/ president who is the chairman, the chief of defence staff, the heads of the Army, Navy and Air Force popularly called the service chiefs, the inspector general of police , justice minister, secretary to the federal military government and high ranking military officers.

(iii) The council of ministers: It was composed of the president, vice president and the ministers some of whom are military officers why some are civilians. The council performed executive functions with the president as chairman.

(iv) The national council of states: It is composed of the head of states, chief of general staff, minister of defence, service chiefs of the army, the navy and the air force ,the inspector General of police attorney General and all military governors. The council was charged with the coordination and the harmonization of the work of the various state governments.

(v) The judiciary: It remained the same as in the civilian era with Chief Justice as the head. Inclusive are various tribunals which had judges and military officers as members.

(vi) The state military governors: a state military Governor is the chief executive and the Head of the state military government and representative of the Head of state in the State. He is responsible to the Head of state and the commander in chief of the Armed Forces. The governor performed both the executive and legislative functions. He is the chairman of the state executive council. He appoints the state commissioners and other officers.Supreme Military Council. He played a significant role in the coup that replaced the civilian government of Shehu Shagari with the military regime led by Muhammad Buhari.



(i) PEACE and SECURITY: Through membership and interaction existing in these international or regional organization eg U.N.O and AU member states are meant to abide by the principles governing these bodies thereby promoting peace and security world wide.

: Especially in the areas of sports, musical and cultural concerts etc , nations are drawn closer mutually. They relate intimately with one another and by so doing conflicts are eliminated.

(iii) ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENT: Interactions bring about states benefiting from others that are more economically viable, especially in the areas of natural endowment, technology etc

(iv) CULTURAL and SOCIAL BENEFIT: States benefit immensely from others, especially through sports,cultural exchange etc. They learn from one another as it brings them closer together.

(v) REMOVAL of INTERFERENCE: Political interaction removes the tendency of one state or more interfering in the domestic affairs of other states or even trying yo dominant others.

(vi) FOREIGN AIDS: Interactions means states can attract technological,financial and technical aids to developing countries from the developed ones

(vii) SPREAD of CIVILIZATION and MODERNIZATION: Interactions among nations of the world can spread civilization and modernization; and even help to promote tourism as well.


(i) DISRUPTION IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR: There was a disruption in the education of students in some parts of the country. Many institutions of learning were destroyed while others were closed. The war caused an academic setback in the country.

(ii) NIGERIANS IMAGE ABROAD WAS DENTED: The image of the country were adversely affected because of the war propaganda. Some foreign countries regarded the war as one between Christians and Muslims.

(iii) GROWTH OF URBAN AREAS: There was mass exodus of people from the rural setting to towns and cities in search of jobs and other means of livelihood. This had given rise to growth of towns and cities in Nigeria. The result also was an increase in crime wave.

(iv) ECONOMIC STANDSTILL: Economic activities in the country were almost at a stand still. Many factories and industries stopped production because of the war.

(v) DISPLACEMENT of FAMILIES: Families were displaced and innocent citizens suffered untold hardship.

(vi) CURRENCY POLICY: The war costs the nation a lot of money. Property investments and an unestimated numbers of lives were lost. The currency policy of the federal government made some sections of the country poorer.

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